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Second edition of “Voyage With the Labrador Eskimos, 1880-1881”

Hello everyone,

After four years in the making, the second edition of Voyage with the Labrador Eskimos, 1880-1881 is finally out! From its initial 86 pages, the book has been expanded to no less than… 300 pages!

Cover – Second edition – Voyage With the Labrador Eskimos, 1880-1881.

The first edition consisted of the English translation of the main portion of Johan Adrian Jacobsen’s 1880-1881 diary. It covered the period from June 28, 1880 (as he was sailing to Greenland to recruit Inuit to bring back to Europe) to January 20, 1881 (four days after the death of the last survivor of the group of eight Labrador Inuit). This portion of the diary was translated by Professor Hartmut Lutz.

Thanks to Dieter Riedel, PhD, we now have access to a larger extract of the diary. It starts in October 1879, when Jacobsen, his brother Jacob Martin, and zoo owner Carl Hagenbeck had the idea of purchasing a ship to travel to the Arctic to recruit Inuit; and it goes until July 24, 1881, the day before Jacobsen headed on his next mission: collecting artifacts on the Northwest Coast of North America for the Berlin Ethnology Museum.

But that’s not all, thanks to Dieter’s dedication, this new edition also includes the English translation of:

  • Jacobsen’s letters with the Greenland Inspector in July 1880 when he was denied the permission to bring Greenlanders to Europe.
  • Over 25 letters, Jacobsen received from family, friends, and business partners between November 9, 1880, and Dec 2, 1881, which mention the Labrador Inuit or give us insight into the world of 19th century “human zoos.”
  • Excerpts from two publications by Jacobsen where he talks about his travels on the Eisbar.
  • The 1880 registration documents for the ship Eisbar.

New additions also include:

  • A foreword by Cathrine Baglo, PhD, Tromsø University Museum, who has done much research on the groups of Samis who participated in ethnographical exhibits. Cathrine was also the instigator of the three-day workshop entitled Johan Adrian Jacobsen: Collector of People and Things held in Tromsø in 2016.
  • A revised and expanded introduction which provides an overview of the multi-year research which led to this second edition.
  • An afterword by Christine Chávez and Barbara Plankensteiner, respectively curator of the American collections and director at the Museum am Rothenbaum – World Cultures and Arts in Hamburg. They give us insight into how the museum came to preserve Johan Adrian Jacobsen’s archives, and express the importance for his archives to be made available to the descendants and communities of the individuals who crossed Jacobsen’s path.
  • An index of people and place names.

Finally, the number of photos and illustrations has gone from 14 to 54.

The book can be obtained in paper and ebook format from various online retailers such as Amazon, Indigo, Kobo, etc. It can also be ordered from your favorite local bookstore or directly from Polar Horizons, the publisher. This second edition is available in English only.

We sincerely hope that this new enlarged edition will prove to be worthwhile and meaningful to all who have an interest in better understanding the story of Abraham Ulrikab, his family, and companions who shared the last four months of their lives with Johan Adrian Jacobsen.

In less than two weeks, on December 14, will mark the 139th anniversary of the death of Nuggasak, the first of the eight Inuit to pass away. May this book contribute to their story never be forgotten.

Thank you! Nakummek!
France Rivet

Le Groenland au Jardin d’acclimatation, Paris, 1877 / Greenland at the Jardin d’acclimatation, Paris, 1877

Récemment, lors d’une recherche sur le site de Gallica de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, mon attention a été attirée par une série d’illustrations publiées le 24 novembre 1877 dans Le journal Amusant. Le dessinateur, Gilbert Randon (1814-1884), avait dépeint les six Inuits recrutés par Johan Adrian Jacobsen à Jakobshavn, maintenant Ilulissat, et présentés dans plusieurs grandes villes européennes tout au long de 1877-1878. Les illustrations de Randon se voulaient être une caricature du séjour du groupe au Jardin d’acclimatation de Paris.

Recently, while searching on the French National Library’s website, Gallica, my attention was drawn to a series of illustrations published in the November 24, 1877, issue ofJournal Amusant. The artist, Gilbert Randon (1814-1884), had portrayed the six Inuit recruited by Johan Adrian Jacobsen in Jakobshavn, now Ilulissat, and exhibited in several major European cities throughout 1877-1878. Randon’s illustrations were meant to be a caricature of the group’s stay at the Jardin d’acclimatation in Paris.

Le journal amusant, 1877-11-24, Page 4
Journal Amusant, 1877-11-24, Page 5

Encore aujourd’hui, malgré que la presse de l’époque ait couvert le séjour de ce tout premier groupe d’Inuits à être exhibés dans les spectacles ethnographiques organisés par Carl Hagenbeck, trop peu est connu à leur sujet.

Still today, despite the fact that the press of the time covered the stay of this very first group of Inuit to be exhibited in Carl Hagenbeck’s ethnographic shows, too little is known about them.

Afin que ces superbes illustrations puissent être découvertes et comprises tant par leurs descendants que par toute personne s’intéressant à l’époque des “zoos humains”, voici la transcription française de la légende de chaque illustration suivie de la traduction anglaise.

Puisse nos efforts être utiles et d’intérêt. Merci!
France Rivet

So that these beautiful illustrations can be discovered and understood by their descendants as well as by anyone interested in the era of “human zoos”, here is the French transcription of each illustration’s caption followed by the English translation.

May our efforts be of use and of interest. Thank you!
France Rivet

Page 4 – Illustration #1 – Le Groenland au Jardin d’acclimatation

(Paragraphe de gauche) Quelques peaux de phoques de tant bien que mal cousues ensemble avec des boyaux de ne sais plus quoi, plus deux ou trois perches pour le toit et le faîtage, voilà ce qui constitue l’habitation des quatre mois d’été au Groenland… S’il est vrai que l’homme le plus riche est celui qui a le moins de besoins, il faut reconnaître que, sous ce rapport, toute la tribu des Rothschild réunis ne ferait jamais qu’une collection de panés en comparaison du plus modeste des habitants de ces contrées bénies du ciel.

(Paragraph on the left) Some seal skins sown together as best they could with guts of I do not remember what, plus two or three perches for the roof and the ridge, this is what constitutes the dwelling in Greenland during the four summer months… If it is true that the richest man is the one who has the least needs, it must be admitted that, in this respect, the entire Rothschilds tribe reunited would never be more than a collection of panés[?] in comparison with the most modest of inhabitants of these heaven-blessed regions.

(Paragraphe de droite) Quant à l’habitation d’hiver, c’est un peu plus recherché, comme on le voit, mais si l’on veut bien réfléchir qu’il faut quelquefois passer là-dedans, sous dix pieds, vingt pieds de neige, par des froids de 40 à 50 degrés, plusieurs mois entiers sans sortir, on comprendra que, malgré sa simplicité native, l’Esquimau, qui, après tout, tient à vivre, sacrifie quelque peu aux douceurs du confortable.

(Paragraph on the right) As for the winter dwelling, it is a little more sought after, as we see, but if one wants to think carefully that it is sometimes necessary to go in there, under ten feet, twenty feet of snow, by colds of 40 to 50 degrees, several whole months without going out, it will be understood that, in spite of its native simplicity, the Eskimo, who, after all, wants to live, sacrifices somewhat to the sweetness of comfort.

Page 4 – Illustration #2 – Tableau de la troupe / Chart of the group

M.— OKABAK (Caspar-Michaël), trente-six ans, jeune premier rôle, fort jeune premier.
KAJAGA (Henry-Johannès), vingt-huit ans, jeune premier, premier amoureux.
KOKKIK (Hans-Huahsen), quarante et un ans, père noble, premier rôle marqué.
Mmmes — OKABAK (Magag-Julianne-Margaritha), vingt-trois ans, premier rôle en tous genres, grande coquette.
OKABAK (Anna), deux ans, première amoureuse, ingénuité.
OKABAK (Margaritha), amoureuse, ingénuité.
Chiens. — Phoques. — Ours blancs. — Utilités.

Mr. OKABAK (Caspar-Michaël), thirty-six years old, young leading role, very young leading role.
KAJAGA (Henry-Johannès), twenty-eight years old, young leading role, first love.
KOKKIK (Hans-Huahsen), forty-one years old, noble father, noticeable leading role.
Mrs. OKABAK (Magag-Julianne-Margaritha), twenty-three years old, leading role of all kinds, coquette.
OKABAK (Anna), two years old, loving, ingenuity.
OKABAK (Margaritha), loving, ingenuity.
Dogs. – Seals. – Polar bears. – Utilities

Page 5 – Illustration #1

Un peu basse, peut-être, de plafond, l’entrée de la demeure des Esquimaux; Mais quand on y est, on ne regrette pas sa peine ni son chapeau bossué; et pour ceux qui n’ont pas vu les casemates de nos remparts pendant le siège de Paris, voilà de quoi s’en faire une idée : même obscurité, même atmosphère écœurante et étouffée… Ah! Dam, quand on est obligé de vivre en guerre avec une nature féroce et de recevoir des ours blancs en guise de projectiles, on ne peut pas songer à faire son nid comme dans un entresol de la rue Saint-Georges.

A little low, perhaps, the ceiling of the entrance to the Eskimos’ house; But once inside, one does not regret his pain or his top hat; and for those who have not seen the casemates of our ramparts during the siege of Paris [1870-71], this is enough to get an idea: the same darkness, the same disgusting and muffled atmosphere… Ah! Damn, when one is obliged to live in war with a fierce nature and to receive polar bears as projectiles, one cannot think of making one’s nest like in an entresol on Saint-Georges Street.

Page 5 – Illustration #2

C’est par des dégelées de coups de fouet que cet intelligent sportsman supplée pour le quart d’heure à la gelée absente, afin que les bourgeois parisiens puissent se faire – quand même – une idée de ce qu’est un attelage du high-life au Groenland.

In the absence of frost, it is with a shower of whiplashes that this intelligent sportsman fills the fifteen minutes, so that the Parisian bourgeois can get – anyway – an idea of what is a dog team in Greenland’s highlife.

Page 5 – Illustration #3

En croirai-je mes yeux!… monsieur n’aime pas l’huile de baleine

Should I believe my eyes!… the gentleman does not like whale oil!

Page 5 – Illustration #4

Ah! Seigneur public, tu veux du nouveau, du pittoresque, de l’émouvant, de l’excentrique; eh bien, si tu n’as jamais vu de troupeaux conduits par une bergère comme on en voit peu, en voici un comme on n’en voit guère… Et dire que c’est pour toi, pour toi seul, gros chéri! Que tout cela, bêtes et gens, est descendu des extrêmes régions hyperboréennes!

Ah! Public Lord, you want something new, picturesque, moving, eccentric; Well, if you have never seen herds driven by a shepherdess as we see rarely, here is one as we do never see it… And all this is for you, for you alone, big darling! All this, beasts and people, came down from extreme hyperborean regions!

Page 5 – Illustration #5

Encore un mode de locomotion à l’étude au Jardin d’acclimatation, où les promenades à dos de phoque seront une des attractions de la saison.

Another mode of locomotion under study at the Jardin d’acclimatation, where rides on the back of a seal will be one of the attractions of the season.

Page 5 – Illustration #6

Il paraît que c’est nous autres chiens qui avons le plus grand succès de curiosité…
Oui, avec le traîneau et les coups de fouet.

Malheur! C’est tout de même vrai, j’y pense.
Que les chiens n’ont pas de bonheur.

It seems that we, the dogs, have the greatest success of curiosity…
Yes, with the sled and the whiplashes.

Good Grief! It’s true, when I think about it.
Dogs do not have happiness.

Page 5 – Illustration #7

Pardon, monsieur le dessinateur, ne pensez-vous pas qu’il serait bon de laisser quelque chose en réserve, pour surprises au public, comme par exemple notre attaque d’une pirogue sur le lac, l’assaut d’une hutte et notre combat corps à corps avec les Esquimaux, qui sont dévorés, naturellement?

Excuse me, Mr. Illustrator, do not you think it would be good to leave something in reserve, for surprises to the public, such as our attack on a kayak on the lake, the assault of a hut and our hand-to-hand combat with the Eskimos, who are devoured, naturally?

Polar Horizons’ notebooks get a makeover / Les carnets de notes d’Horizons Polaires font peau neuve

Hello / Bonjour,

A couple of months ago, we were contacted by Nadine Khalife, a most enthusiastic young mother of two boys who had just embarked on a major career change to follow her passion. She was about to launch her new entreprise Mint and Honey Miel et Menthe Gifts. Nadine had just discovered Polar Horizons’ art cards and notebooks and was envisoning to integrate them into the gift packages she was designing. As she told us, she had a “coup de coeur” for the Arctic Flora notebook. That specific notebook was her inspiration to launch into sourcing more and more northern products and she hopes to be able to add a variety which will contribute to local economy, even if just a little bit. / Il y a quelques mois, nous avons été contactés par Nadine Khalife, une jeune mère de deux garçons avec beaucoup d’enthousiasme. Nadine venait d’amorcer un changement de carrière majeur pour suivre sa passion et lancer sa nouvelle entreprise Mint and Honey Miel et Menthe Gifts. En découvrant les cartes artistiques et carnets de notes d’Horizons Polaires, Nadine a eu l’idée de les intégrer dans ses ensembles-cadeaux. Comme elle nous l’a dit, elle a eu un «coup de coeur» pour le carnet sur la flore arctique. Ce carnet a été son inspiration pour se lancer dans l’approvisionnement de plusieurs produits nordiques. Elle espère être en mesure d’éventuellement ajouter une grande variété de ces produits de façon à contribuer à l’économie locale, même si ce n’est que modestement.

Two months ago, we didn’t have any notebooks in stock. They were printed in the United States and had a perfect binding which made it awkward to write inside the notebooks. So, thanks to Nadine, we decided it was high time to revamp our collection of notebooks. We therefore took this opportunity to go through each notebook and made some changes to the set of photos by integrating recent images. We also changed the binding with a metal Wire’o spiral and found a local printer. / Il y a deux mois, nous n’avions aucun carnet en stock. Ces derniers étaient imprimés aux États-Unis et avaient une reliure parfaite (aussi appelée reliure allemande, ou à dos collé) ce qui n’était pas pratique pour écrire à l’intérieur des carnets. Donc, grâce à Nadine, nous avons décidé qu’il était grand temps de revoir notre collection de carnets. Nous avons donc profité de l’occasion pour apporter quelques modifications aux photos qui constituaient chaque carnet en intégrant des images récentes. Nous avons aussi changé la reliure par une spirale métallique Wire’o et trouvé un imprimeur local.

So, today, we are very happy to introduce the new and improved collection of Polar Horizons notebooks. / Aujourd’hui,  nous sommes très heureux de vous présenter notre collection de carnets de notes revue et améliorée.

Five notebooks are now available. Click on either the title or the photo of the cover to browse the content of each notebook. / Cinq carnets sont désormais offerts. Cliquez sur le titre ou la photo de la couverture pour feuilleter le contenu de chaque carnet:

The notebooks can be ordered through Polar Horizons’ Bookstore. If you know of organizations, schools, etc. who might be interested in using them as part of their fundraising activities, we sure are open to discussion. Just get in touch with us. / Les carnets peuvent être commandés via la librairie d’Horizons Polaires. Si vous connaissez des organismes ou écoles qui pourraient être intéressés à les vendre dans le cadre de leurs collectes de fonds, nous sommes ouverts aux discussions. Il suffit de nous contacter.

To celebrate this new collection and the end of the year 2017, we are offering a 15% rebate on all orders of notebooks from now until end of day December 31, 2017. You simply have to enter the coupon code BYEBYE2017 at checkout time. / Pour célébrer cette nouvelle collection et la fin de l’année 2017, nous offrons un rabais de 15% sur toutes les commandes de carnets de notes d’ici la fin de la journée du 31 décembre 2017. Il vous suffit d’entrer le code BYEBYE2017 au moment de passer la commande.

Thank you! / Merci!

France Rivet


New book launched – Renatus’ Kayak: A Labrador Inuk, an American G.I. and a Secret World War II Weather Station


On Thursday, November 30, more than 80 people gathered at Memorial University’s Marine Institute in St. John’s to attend the Newfoundland and Labrador Historical Society‘s Gilbert Higgins Lecture, an annual event co-sponsored by the Museum Association of Newfoundland and Labrador and the Association of Newfoundland and Labrador Archives. The audience consisted of members of the kayaking society as well.

This year, author Rozanne Enerson Junker shared the story of her multi-year investigation to retrace the Inuit family her uncle Elwood “Woody” Belsheim had shared so many precious moments with while serving at a secret U.S. weather station in Hebron, Labrador, during World War II. Rozanne’s lecture traced the history of the Ferry Command, the secret weather station, and the Inuk hunter, Renatus Tuglavina, using a model sealskin kayak, made for Woody by Renatus, as her spirit guide.

Larry Dohey, President of the Newfoundland and Labrador Historical Society.

Larry Dohey, President of the Newfoundland and Labrador Historical Society, welcoming guests. Photo: Dave Lough.


John Griffin, President of the Museum Association of Newfoundland and Labrador

John Griffin, President of the Museum Association of Newfoundland and Labrador, remembering Gilbert Higgins. Photo: Dave Lough.


Catharyn Andersen

Catharyn Andersen, Special Advisor to the President of Memorial University and Nunatsiavut beneficiary, introduced Rozanne. Photo: Dave Lough.


Rozanne Enerson Juner

Rozanne Enerson Junker – guest speaker for the 2017 Gilbert Higgins Lecture. Photo: Dave Lough.

The evening also served as the official launch of Rozanne’s book Renatus’ Kayak: A Labrador Inuk, an American G.I. and a Secret World War II Weather Station. Less than a week before, we had picked up from Imprimerie Gauvin, in Gatineau, the copies of the book people would be holding on that special evening.

Rozanne Enerson Junker and Patricia Latour

Rozanne Enerson Junker and Patricia Latour, Assistant General Manager at Imprimerie Gauvin, in Gatineau. Photo: France Rivet.


Rozanne Enerson Junker with boxes of Renatus' Kayak

Rozanne Enerson Junker with boxes of Renatus’ Kayak. Photo: France Rivet.


Rozanne Enerson Junker holding her new book, Renatus' Kayak

Rozanne Enerson Junker holding her new book, Renatus’ Kayak

Rozanne’s lecture received media coverage in Newfoundland and Labrador with two interviews on CBC, and one feature article in The Telegram. Here are the links where you can read/listen to her fascinating story:

People have been asking where they can get a copy of the book. At present, the following brick and mortar bookstores carry it:

Newfoundland and Labrador


The book can also be ordered directly from the publisher: Polar Horizons.

That said, wherever you are in the world, the book can easily be ordered through many online retailers, such as Amazon, Barnes & Noble, etc. Here is a list of the retailers that we have put together, and which we will try to keep up to date: Where can I purchase Renatus’ Kayak?

Over the last week, we are thrilled to see the book continue to climb in the Amazon rankings. On December 2, it was at rank #14 and #15

2017-12-02 - Amazon Ranking

For all of you who already purchased, or will be purchasing, the book through Amazon, thank you for taking a few minutes of your time to rank the book by awarding it the number of stars you feel it deserves. Complementing your rating with comments would be a most generous bonus. It will help the book get discovered by more readers.

Thanks to all who have had a role to play in the successful launch of Renatus’ Kayak.

France Rivet

Presenting the book cover for “Renatus’ Kayak: A Labrador Inuk, an American G.I. and a Secret World War II Weather Station”


For the last week, Rozanne Enerson Junker and I have been working with designers from the 99designs platform to come up with the cover for Rozanne’s new book Renatus’ Kayak: A Labrador Inuk, an American G.I. and a Secret World War II Weather Station. The book, to be officially launched on November 30, 2017, in St. John’s, NL, is the result of Rozanne’s multi-year research to find an Inuit hunter, Renatus Tuglavina, and his daughter Harriot, the two individuals who befriended her uncle Elmwood “Woody” Belsheim in Hebron, Labrador, while serving at a secret U.S. Army weather station during World War II.

The designers had the mandate to come up with a cover that would best reflect the content of Renatus’ Kayak, a book which seamlessly melds World War II military history, Labrador Inuit culture, religion, politics and love through the true stories of Woody, Renatus and Harriot. The link between the three individuals, as well as between the WWII era and today, is a three-feet sealskin model kayak which Renatus made for Woody, and which Woody, in turn, gave to Rozanne.

One of the criteria imposed on the designers was that they had to integrate on the front cover the artwork entitled Silent Boats #5 by artist Allen Smutylo. Rozanne and I were so thrilled when Allen gave us his blessing to use his artwork on the cover. Finding an illustration that incorporated a representation of three main elements of the story – the kayak, an Inuit hunter (Renatus) and a woman (Harriot) – was simply unhoped for.

Of the 43 designs that were submitted, Rozanne and I selected our top three. To help us see more clearly, and to make the final decision, we ran a poll asking for thoughts, comments on the three designs. Over 125 people provided their feedback either through the 99designs platform, Facebook, email messages or phone calls. Some people opted to rate their choices using a 5-star system, others awarded their first, second and third place, or simply shared with us their top pick. People were also free to provide comments or explain their decision.

Before I go any further, here were our top three choices (in chronological number of cover id):

Votes came in from both ends of North America (California and Nunatsiavut), everywhere in between, and from Europe. Some were already familiar with Rozanne’s research, others had never heard of it. Even though the poll had nothing scientific, we were extremely pleased with the number of people who took the time to review.

Very quickly, it became obvious that we would not be able to rely solely on the statistics provided by the 99designs platform to help us make our decision. The scores were simply too close, didn’t take into consideration the many votes received from other sources, nor the actual comments. We had to develop our own analysis system. What were people really telling us?

First, I came up with a list of about ten questions. For example, which cover…

  • … better reflects the book’s genre?
  • … better conveys the tone of the book?
  • … better reflects the Arctic setting?
  • … better grabs the attention?
  • … looks more professional?
  • … is more pleasing to look at?
  • … is easier to read?
  • … matches our target audiences?
  • etc.

Then, I went through all the received comments and put them beside the question they related to, asking myself whether the comment represented a pro or a con for the cover. So, slowly, the spreadsheet was being built. Once all comments had been classified, I took each question, analyzed the comments and tried to determine which of the design had the advantage. At the end of the process, one design clearly had gathered the most advantages.

I sent the spreadsheet to Rozanne for her to look at and see if my logic made sense. Would she come to the same conclusion? Interestingly, some of the comments I saw as a “con”, she saw as a “pro”. We discussed, made adjustments, and in the end, we both agreed that one design stood out. But, because we really liked all three of them, in the back of our minds, there was still a tiny doubt. Yes, but this one… and this one… We knew we’d end up disappointing lots of people and two of the three designers. That was unavoidable.

There was one more check we could make. Would the printer have issues with any of the covers that we didn’t couldn’t identify? The answer came back that from a production level, it didn’t make any difference which one we would choose. But, in their opinion, one stood out as being “on the target” for the current market. It was the one that our analysis had identified as the winning design. Somehow, both Rozanne and I felt relieved. We were making the right decision.

Without any further ado, here is the winning design for the first edition of Renatus’ Kayak: A Labrador Inuk, an American G.I. and a Secret World War II Weather Station:

The winning design.

A few minor adjustments will be made before going to print.

Thank you so much to the three designers: semnitz, Wally_F, Inosity Studios for their time, enthusiasm and hard word. It was a great pleasure to collaborate with all of them.

Thank you! Merci! Nakummek! to everyone who took the time to look at the cover options, rate them and/or provide comments. Every single rating and comment was useful and helped us reach the final decision.

We’re now one step closing to holding the final products in our hands, and to be able to share it with the world.

For those of you who are in St. John’s, NL, please note the date of November 30, 2017, as it will be the official book launch when Rozanne gives her talk at the Newfoundland and Labrador History Society at 7:30 p.m.

Thank you for your interest and support.
France Rivet


NunaKakKaasimajut (First Peoples First Occupants): A New Radio Show Hosted by Angus Andersen Dedicated to Canadian Indigenous Music

Angus Andersen loves listening to indigenous music. Quite often you’ll find him searching on YouTube for new songs and performers. But, in March 2016, something changed! As a member of the Inuit Drum group Kilautiup Songuninga (strength of the drums), Angus flew from St. John’s to Ottawa to take part in the Inuit community’s Spring Equinox celebration. Little did he know that sharing the stage, and meeting, so many Inuit artists from all regions of Canada would become the catalyst for him to host a radio show fully dedicated to Canadian indigenous music.

Solomon Semigak, Angus Andersen, Sophie Angnatok and Stan Nochasak performing at the Spring Equinox celebration in Ottawa. March 2016. (Photo: France Rivet)

“There’s a lot of aboriginal music out there. I wanted people in the St. John’s-Avalon area to hear Inuktitut voice on the radio and hear more aboriginal music because none of the big stations here have aboriginal content,” Angus explained to me when we chatted on the phone.

“Every now and then, on Fridays, I listen to CHMR-FM radio. They have a great two hours of country music. One day, I said to myself, ‘I should write them a letter and see if I can do a show.’” Well! Angus did write to the station. His idea received an immediate positive reply which led Angus to meet with two of the radio station’s program directors. A week later, on July 20, 2017, at 2 p.m., Angus was sitting in CHMR’s studio welcoming listeners to the very first hour of NunaKakKaasimajut (First Peoples First Occupants), a bilingual talk show (Inuktitut and English) featuring 100% Canadian indigenous music.

Angus Andersen hosting NunaKakKaasimajut. (Photo by Colleen Power)

“All radio station programs today have a 20% content of Canadian music. The difference with mine is that it is 100% Canadian aboriginal. I’m playing from unknown local artists to more popular groups. I have had three requests so far. Other than that, the choice of music played has all been based on my preferences.”

Things happened so fast that Angus still can’t believe that his radio show has become reality! What he likes most about hosting it is the ability to speak Inuktitut on the air, and to do so without restriction. He is most proud that CHMR has given him carte blanche.

Angus Andersen with CHMR News Director Colleen Power. (Photo courtesy of Angus Andersen)

Initially, Angus’ intent was to concentrate on playing Inuit artists and music. But a discussion with his aunt Rita Andersen made him realize that the title he had chosen, NunaKakKaasimajut, really encompassed more than Inuit. It meant First Peoples, so music from Metis and First Nations had to be part of it too! “That is why I brought in all aboriginal music,” explained Angus. In his very first opening, he dedicated his show to the Beothuks, the indigenous people of the island of Newfoundland whose last survivor, Shanawdithit, died in 1829.

People who know Angus know very well that he is not new to the world of communications nor to community involvement. He worked for eight years as a journalist for the OKâlaKatiget Society, in Nain, and has done freelance reporting for CBC Radio One. “In the 1980s, when the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation decided to come up with their own station, which later became APTN, I was on one of the selection committees in Labrador. I have been involved in communications maybe 30–35 years, but I have always been a community person. Even before I started with OK Society, I was helping with community events,” Angus explained to me.

Still today, he plays very active roles in a variety of initiatives, from St. John’s community freezer program and Urban Inuit Committee to organizing sessions for Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and raising awareness, through his water bottle campaign, on the methylmercury issues posed by the Muskrat Falls Hydroelectric project. Despite all these activities, Angus still finds time to give Inuktitut classes (one-on-one in person or online) and to do soapstone carvings.

Angus teaching Labrador Inuktitut at the Ottawa Inuit Children Center in Ottawa, March 2016. (Photo: France Rivet)

As I write this note, Angus is preparing the fourth instalment of NunaKakKaasimajut. So far, his playlists have included artists such as Beatrice Deer, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Charlie Adams, Charlie Panaguniak Kamatotc, David Hart, Eastern Owl, Eli Merkuratsuk, Inuvialuit Drum Dancers, Jaaji, Kashtin, Lisa Penashue, The Jerry Cans, Kathleen Ivaluarjuk Merritt, Kelly Fraser, Nain Drum Dancers, Saali and the Ravenhearts, Twin Flames, William Tagoona, to name just a few.

Angus’ hope is that eventually, as more people tune in, as more requests come in, and as more CDs are collected, the station will consider adding a second hour to his show. But, for now, the priority is to spread the word about NunaKakKaasimajut, an initiative which can definitely be seen as contributing to building bridges between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples.

The show airs at 2 p.m. Newfoundland Time, and even though you may not reside in the Avalon Peninsula where CHMR’s antennas can reach you, you definitely can listen to the show live or as podcasts. So far, people have been tuning in from as far as Anchorage, Alaska.

HOW TO LISTEN TO NunaKakKaasimajut

If you live in the St. John’s—Avalon peninsula area, simply tune in CHMR FM 93.5 on Thursdays @ 2 p.m.

If you live outside the broadcasting area, access CHMR’s home page. In the top left corner, you’ll see a “Listen Now” button which allows you to tune in.

Here are the podcasts of the latest three instalments:

To listen to any of the shows that aired in the last four months, you can also go to this address Here’s what you will see:


Specify the date of the show you’re looking for (remember that NunaKakKaasimajut started on July 20, 2017). Enter 14:00 as the start time and 15:00 as the stop time. Press the Stream m3u button. You’ll get a pop-up to either open the link or save it to your computer. If you choose to open it, within seconds you’ll be listening to the live broadcast.

Currently, YouTube is Angus’ main media for making his selection. That said, artists are just starting to send him copies of their CDs. So, if you are a Canadian indigenous artist, or know one who could be featured on NunaKakKaasimajut, Angus will be thrilled to get a copy of your CD. Here’s the address where it can be sent to:

Attn: Angus Andersen
Box A-119
Memorial University of Newfoundland
St. John’s  NL  A1C 5S7

Music can also be submitted as MP3. But, before you send anything in that format, please read CHMR’s policy on submitting material.

Whether you’d like to send a special request, ask a question, or tell Angus where you’re tuning in from, you can reach him via:
Twitter: @AndersenAngus

From now on, every week, you can share an hour with Angus who does his best to create his own version of the Spring Equinox event where the seed for this big adventure was planted a year ago. Hope you tune in, enjoy and share the news with friends and family.

Thank you! Merci! Nakummek!
France Rivet






Labrador Inuit Featured in the German Embassy’s new Exhibit in Ottawa

Good day,

I am so excited and proud to tell you about the “Germany and Canada: Partners from Immigration to Innovation” exhibit that just opened last night in Ottawa. The exhibit is being presented by the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, and its many partners, to celebrate Canada’s 150th anniversary. It is located in the International Pavilion, a brand new building (7 Clarence Street, on the corner of Sussex Street) which was also inaugurated last night.

The main floor is dedicated to introducing bilateral research projects and partnerships. For example, that’s where you’ll be able to use your mind to turn a wind turbine. Check out the Mind2Motion Challenge and you  might even win a Siemens drone!

The second floor is aimed at highlighting a few of the stories of how the peoples of Canada and Germany have interacted and shared experiences over the centuries. That’s where you’ll discover a few notable German personalities in Canada, the Canadian Forces Base in Lahr from 1967 to 1994, and how the city of Kitchener got its name.

But, for those of us with an interest in the North and the Inuit culture, the section you cannot miss is the one entitled “Moravians in Labrador: A dialogue between German and Inuit cultures.” I am so thrilled that the German Embassy  considered this subject “a must” to be included in the exhibit. Two of the highlights are the Moravian music and Abraham Ulrikab’s story.

Here are a few photos to give you a better idea.

Introduction panel to “Moravians in Labrador: A Dialogue Between German and Inuit Cultures”.


View of the entrance of the section “Moravians in Labrador”.


The panel on the Moravian Brass Band with pictures of the brass band playing on the roof of the church in Nain.


The panel “The Inuit Voice in Moravian Music” where you can watch “Till We Meet Again: Moravian Music in Labrador” as well as a few other video clips.


In the next corner, is the panel on the story of the eight Inuit who were taken to Europe in 1880 to be exhibited in zoos.


People reading excerpts from Abraham Ulrikab’s diary provided in a flip book.


Here I am surrounded by Robert Evans, from Origin Studios, the Ottawa-based company who designed the exhibit, and master photographer Hans-Ludwig Blohm who introduced me to Abraham’s story back in 2009.


Tom Gordon and his wife Mary O’Keeffe looking at the acknowledgement panel.

Here is an article published on the Embassy’s So German! Si Allemand! blog about Abraham’s story.

The “Moravians in Labrador” section of the exhibit was made possible through the contribution of many individuals. The names I recognized on the acknowledgment panel include: Jamie Brake (Nunatsiavut Government archeologist), Tom Gordon (Memorial University), Jack Ives (who contributed a 1956 photo of Hebron), Hartmut Lutz (German-English translator of Abraham’s Diary and author of the book “The Diary of Abraham Ulrikab: Text and Context”),  Nigel Markham (film director of “Till We Meet Again”), Ossie Michelin (contributed photos and video clips of the Nain Brass Band), France Rivet (yours truly), Jacqueline Thun (German-French translator of Abraham’s Diary), and all the various archives who agreed to the use of their images.

I would like to express my thanks to:

  • Martin Schurig, First secretary – Communication and Culture, who had the idea of including Abraham’s story in the exhibit and brought his colleague Peter Finger to the world premiere of “Trapped in a Human Zoo” so that Peter would get introduced to the story;
  • Peter Finger, the person in charge of the exhibit, who requested that we have a chat and decided to give consideration to my suggestion to put Abraham’s story within the context of the Moravian presence in Labrador. Shortly after, he flew to St. John’s to meet with Tom Gordon and came back convinced that this was the right path.
  •  Ambassador Werner Wnendt who gave his blessing.
  • The staff of the Communication and Culture sector, Claudia Ringwald, Frank Hartmann and Kerstin Kormendy, for all their support and help.

Please spread the word to people who might be in Ottawa between now and July 26th. The exhibit is open 7 days a week. Mondays to Fridays: 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. On Sundays: 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.

France Rivet



Ottawa’s Inuit Community Celebrates the Spring Equinox – La communauté inuite d’Ottawa célèbre l’équinoxe de printemps

Ullukut! Hello! Bonjour!

On Saturday, March 18, 2017, Ottawa’s Inuit community held its annual spring equinox celebration at the Bronson Centre. Organized by Tungasuvvingat Inuit, an organization that provides social support, cultural activities, counselling and crisis intervention to Ontario’s Inuit population, this event was also meant to celebrate TI’s 30th anniversary.  / Le samedi 18 mars 2017, la communauté inuite d’Ottawa a tenu sa célébration annuelle de l’équinoxe de printemps au Centre Bronson. Organisé par Tungasuvvingat Inuit, une organisation qui fournit du soutien social, des activités culturelles, des conseils et des interventions en cas de crise à la population inuite de l’Ontario, l’événement était également destiné à célébrer le 30e anniversaire de TI.

Here’s a photographic summary of the afternoon. / Voici un résumé en photos de l’après-midi :

The event started with a community feast featuring traditional country food such as seal, caribou, whale, Arctic char. / L’événement a débuté par un repas communautaire mettant en vedette de la nourriture traditionnelle telle que du phoque, du caribou, de la baleine et de l’omble chevalier.

Whale and Arctic char / Baleine et de l’omble chevalier.

The master of ceremony. / La maître de cérémonie.

Zipporah Nochasak introduces the participants to TI’s parka sewing courses. The group did a short fashion show with their creations. / Zipporah Nochasak introduit les participants aux cours de confection de parka de TI. Ces derniers ont défilé avec leurs créations.

Tamara and Janice, who form the duo “arnakuluit” (beautiful women), kicked off the musical performances with throat-singing. / Tamara et Janice, qui forment le duo “arnakuluit” (belles femmes), ont donné le coup d’envoi aux spectacles musicaux avec des chants de gorge.

Jessica McLean, originally from Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador who is now a real-estate agent from Toronto, shared with us her dream to build an Inuit real-estate company and aimed to inspire Inuit youth to follow their dreams. / Jessica McLean, originaire de Happy Valley-Goose Bay, au Labrador, qui est maintenant un agent immobilier à Toronto, a partagé avec nous son rêve de bâtir une entreprise immobilière inuite et d’inspirer les jeunes Inuits à suivre leurs rêves.

Keenan Komaksiutiksak, a young man originally from Rankin Inlet (Nunavut), performed a routine that had all of us totally stunned. Even the young children who were running and playing in front of the stage suddenly became totally silent and their eyes couldn’t get off Kennan. Kennan is a dancer, but three years ago, he found a new passion for the circus art and has become a contortionist. His dream is to be part of the Cirque du Soleil. Here is a video where you can see Keenan perform. /  Keenan Komaksiutiksak, un jeune homme originaire de Rankin Inlet (Nunavut), a effectué une routine qui nous a tous totalement subjugués. Même les jeunes enfants qui couraient et jouaient devant la scène sont soudainement devenus totalement silencieux, leurs yeux rivés sur Kennan. Kennan est un danseur, mais il y a trois ans, il s’est découvert une nouvelle passion pour l’art du cirque. Depuis, il est devenu un contorsionniste. Son rêve est de faire partie du Cirque du Soleil. Voici une vidéo où vous pouvez voir Keenan à l’oeuvre:

Selina Adams, originally from Nunatsiavut, has been living in Toronto for more than 37 years. Selina has helped create the association ITUK (Inuit of Toronto Urban Katimavvik), which was recently incorporated as the “Toronto Inuit Association”. Selina sits on the board of directors. / Selina Adams, originaire du Nunatsiavut, vit à Toronto depuis plus de 37 ans. Selina a contribué à la création de l’association ITUK (Inuit of Toronto Urban Katimavvik), qui a été récemment incorporée sous le nom «Toronto Inuit Association». Selina siège au conseil d’administration.

The students of Nunavut Sivuniksavut were next to provide musical entertainment with songs, drum dancing from Western Arctic and square dancing. / Les étudiants du collège Nunavut Sivuniksavut ont ensuite fourni des divertissements musicaux avec des chansons, des danses de tambours de l’ouest de l’Arctique et des quadrilles.

Silla + Rise, a trio based in Ottawa and made up of Cynthia Pitsiulak, Charlotte Qamaniq and DJ Rise Ashen, blends Inuit traditional and contemporary throat-singing with futuristic dancefloor beats. They played a few songs from their Debut album which is nominated for “Indigenous Music Album of the Year” at the Juno Awards 2017. Here is where you can hear their unique sound: / Silla + Rise, un trio basé à Ottawa et composé de Cynthia Pitsiulak, de Charlotte Qamaniq et du DJ Rise Ashen, allie le chant de gorge inuit traditionnel et contemporain aux musiques de dancefloor futuristes. Ils ont joué quelques chansons de leur album Debut qui est nommé pour “le meilleur Album de musique indigène de l’année” aux Juno Awards 2017. Voici un lien où vous pouvez entendre leur son unique:

The event closed with a performance by Twin Flames made up of singer-songwriters Chelsey June and Jaaji and their musicians Chris Zimmerman (drums), Karolyne Lafortune (violin) and Francis Dupuis (bass).

Here is Twin Flames’ most recent video, that of their song “Taanisi” (“to dance” in Inuktitut). I bet you too will be dancing when you watch it. 😉 / Voici la vidéo la plus récente de Twin Flames, celle de leur chanson “Taanisi” (“danser” en Inuktitut). Je suis prête à parier que vous aussi danserez en écoutant la chanson. 😉

Have a great day! Bonne journée!
France Rivet




Dispossessed: The eviction of Inuit from Hebron, Labrador: Book Launch


From February 27 to March 3, 2017, the Université du Québec à Montréal was the host of the second International Week of the Arctic and Antarctic Observatory of Southern and Northern Societies and Cultures, an initiative of the Universidad del Salvador, the Université du Québec à Montréal, the University of Iceland, the Universidad Nacional de Tierra del Fuego and the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional — Rio Grande (Argentina).

The official opening of the week’s activities was the launch of Carol Brice-Bennett’s book Dispossessed: The eviction of Inuit from Hebron, Labrador. The book is based on Carol’s 1994 report to the North Program, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, about the closure of the Moravian mission of Hebron and the forced relocation of all Inuit families to other communities along the Labrador Coast. A new chapter was appended to the report to summarize the actions that have been taken in the past twenty-two years.

I had the pleasure of attending the book launch, and the great privilege of bringing the evening’s distinguished guest: Sophie Jararuse Keelan, a survivor of the relocation. Her family was relocated from Hebron to Makkovik when she was 11 years old.

Here are a few photos of the event attended by thirty or so researchers and artists from various countries such as Argentina, Siberia, France or Finland.

Dominic Hardy, the evening’s MC, Professor of Art History, Université du Québec à Montréal


Catherine Mounier, Vice-rector of Research and Creation, Université du Québec à Montréal


Professor Enrique Del Acebo Ibáñez, Universidad del Salvador, Argentina


Professor Daniel Chartier, Research Chair on Images of the North, Winter and the Arctic and International Laboratory for the Multidisciplinary Study of Representations of the North, Université du Québec à Montréal

As Daniel explained: “In 1959, men, women, and children were forced to leave their community on the coast of Labrador without their consent. Today, nothing can repair this injustice, but we all have the obligation to know about these events and the affected outcome on the people of Hebron, and to make sure that such a situation never repeats itself.”

Carol Brice-Bennett, the book’s author.

Daniel was followed by the book’s author Carol Brice-Bennett: “I’m glad this particular study was published because it was such a crucial event for Inuit in Northern Labrador. As Daniel said, it should never have happened and never happen again. And it’s part of the identify of Labrador Inuit. There have been relocations elsewhere and it’s an experience that many people can relate to. It makes me think of one person I interviewed. They were not among the Hebron Inuit. It was someone from Makkovik who had to move to Happy Valley Goose Bay to work, and suddenly, they understood what it meant to leave their home and start again. It’s an experience that in our world today is quite common. I think that maybe the book will give a perspective on some of the difficulties of adapting to another place. There’s one person here who can really speak from experience. I’ll let Sophie talk.”

Sophie Jararuse Keelan

As the representative of all Hebron relocatees, Sophie’s testimonial touched many in the room: “It was a difficult experience, an overwhelming experience. I’m so honoured and privileged to speak at this special event. Our people are Inuit and were relocated against their will by the government of Newfoundland. It’s a very sad experience. When I get to think of it now, I still see in front of me the day we left my homeland. We left our identity as Inuit, as families, as close friends. We had to survive and get adapted again to the new environment, to the new land. We had to learn again the surroundings of hunting areas. (…) I lost families in Hebron. My sister, older brother, grandparents, aunts, uncles and friends are buried in Hebron. I am privileged to go back every year since 2009 to relive it and bring back my own identity as an Inuk person. I wanted the people of around the world to know that we are all human beings. (…) It doesn’t matter what you look like, what colour is your skin. You are human beings. This is what I treasure in my heart. I thank you very much for listening to me. Nakurmiik.”

Carol Brice-Bennett exchanging with Sophie Jararuse Keelan.


Sophie, beside her husband Mike, proudly showing her copy of Dispossessed.

Thanks to an agreement with the Nunatsiavut Government, 500 copies will be distributed to the relocatees and their families.

Published by Les Presses de l’Université du Québec, Dispossessed hits the shelves of bookstores today, March 15. The paper copy can be ordered directly through the publisher, through, or through your favourite bookstore.

The digital version can also be downloaded, for free, from Archipel, the Université du Québec à Montréal’s open access library of digital publications. Just click on the button Télécharger (41MB) appearing beside the picture of the book cover.

Thank you! Nakummek!
France Rivet





A Litter of Polar Bear Books to celebrate International Polar Bear Day

Good day all,

Just a few days ago, in light of International Polar Bear Day being just around the corner, a colleague writer, Michael Engelhard, made me an offer I couldn’t resist: publish his review of five books about polar bears on my blog. I haven’t had the pleasure of meeting Michael yet, but we’ve been exchanging by email for the last two years.

Michael first contacted me to ask my permission to publish a photo I took of the 2013 ordination of the new Churchill-Hudson Bay archbishop. Michael was in the research phase of his upcoming book, a cultural anthropology of the polar bear, and, as he explained, my photo “beautifully illustrated the medieval Icelandic custom of donating polar bear skins to churches, as a sign of devotion, and they were often spread in front of the altar.”

Cérémonie d'ordination. Remarquez l'ordinand qui est couché sur la peau de l'ours polaire.

Through our exchanges, Michael also informed me about a segment of Johan Adrian Jacobsen’s life that I was not aware of. For those who have been following this blog, you know that Johan Adrian was the young Norwegian hired by Carl Hagenbeck to recruit “Eskimos” for his ethnographical shows. In summer 1880, Jacobsen came to Labrador and recruited eight Inuit, among them Abraham Ulrikab, who all died in Europe, killed by smallpox. That said, did you know that Jacobsen was also tasked by Hagenbeck to help train polar bears to pull sleds on one of Roald Amundsen’s expedition? That was news to me. As Michael also explained that crazy scheme never amounted to anything.

As per Canada Post’s tracking system, my copy of Michael’s book, Ice Bear: The Cultural History of an Arctic Icon, is now in Gatineau. So, it’s just a matter of hours before it arrives on my doorstep. I’m really looking forward to dig into it and learn so much more about this icon of the Arctic and the multiple ways it has inspired, influenced, fascinated, or terrorized  humans over the centuries.

With no further ado, here is Michael’s essay.

Happy International Polar Bear Day!
France Rivet


Illustration from a German children’s book, 1928

Illustration from a German children’s book, 1928

In his out-of-print gem Bears and Men: A Gathering, the poet and novelist William Mills relates an Eskimo legend that, with sea ice shrinking and polar bears starving, feels especially poignant. In it, the raven created women and men, and plants and animals for them to eat. Then he created the polar bear, “because he felt that if he didn’t create something to make men afraid, they would destroy everything he had made to inhabit the earth.”

On International Polar Bear Day Feb. 27, let us celebrate the charismatic creature with a few books for discerning (and concerned) readers. This Arctic roundup includes a biological overview, a graphic novel, a travelogue, a pictorial anthology, and a children’s book and all are available through your local bookseller.

Polar Bears: Polar Bears: A Complete Guide to Their Biology and Behavior

For people curious about the lives and ecology of polar bears but intimidated by technical tomes, Andrew Derocher’s Polar Bears: A Complete Guide to Their Biology and Behavior (2012) is heaven sent. Helped by Wayne Lynch’s color photos, the eminent Canadian wildlife biologist puts the bear in its natural context, outlining its role as an apex predator — the largest carnivore on land. Chapters on polar bear evolution and Arctic marine ecosystems show that it owes much to the sea — hence its classification as a marine mammal. Drawing on fieldwork and an extensive literature, Derocher even explores arcane topics such as molting and vocalizations. Written for laypersons and with sidebars scattered throughout, Polar Bears offers just enough information to whet readers’ appetites for more.

The Giant Bear: An Inuit Folktale

In children’s books about polar bears, which are flooding the market, the animal’s protective parent-offspring bond and the cubs’ need to explore feature prominently, allowing children to identify easily with the bears. Unfortunately, the books often also humanize their infant character. More naturalistic stories incorporate biological information — and then there are retellings of Inuit myths such as The Giant Bear (2012). Fetchingly illustrated by Eva Widermann, it is based on a narration by Native storyteller Jose Angutingunrik from Nunavut. It tells of an ice-clad, monstrous bear — the nanurluk — that lives under the sea ice and stalks an old couple. Despite its gruesome subject, the book offers real insights into Arctic survival and the minds of people who’ve thrived there for millennia.

(Note from France: This book is also available in Inuktitut, in Innuinnaqtun and in French.)

The Beaufort DiariesA bedtime story for grown-ups, T. Cooper’s graphic novel (and animated short) The Beaufort Diaries (2010) follows a polar bear exiled from Alaska into “the wilds of Hollywood.” In this riff on Kotzwinkle’s satirical parable The Bear Went Over the Mountain, the protagonist also makes it big in “La-La Land,” rising to stardom and hobnobbing with a famous real-life actor who has made global warming his cause célèbre. Reaching beyond naïve anthropomorphizing, the animal’s personification in Cooper’s tale functions as once did Aesop’s and La Fontaine’s: It mirrors our own society, our own foibles.

The Last Polar BearSeattle’s Mountaineers Books is known for large-format pictorials that are much more than mere “coffee-table books.” Many of their titles focus on Arctic landscapes and wildlife (and one even contains a CD of birdsongs). These books showcase sublime photography and writing by different contributors, combined with environmental advocacy. They remind us of American heirlooms — places and life forms — that deserve our attention and protection. Photographer Steven Kazlowski’s, The Last Polar Bear (2008) contains 200 photos he took over a period of six years. Essays by luminaries such as the former anthropologist Richard Nelson, wildlife biologist Stephen C. Amstrup, and a great-grandson of “Teddy” Roosevelt paint a vivid picture of the white bear’s life ways and situation.

Never Look a Polar Bear in the EyeThe journalist, firefighter, and paramedic Zac Unger’s travelogue-cum-reportage Never Look a Polar Bear in the Eye (2013) compels with details about the Churchill, Manitoba scene. Planeloads of wildlife enthusiasts seek out this “Polar Bear Capital of the World” every year, and Unger depicts them and the locals and the furry objects of their desire with humor and verve. According to him, some residents carry a shotgun when they push a baby stroller through town. Unger, his wife, and their three children moved from Oakland, California, to make Churchill their temporary home — the writer’s quest for mini-marshmallows to feed to his kids was the least of adventures in this remote, small community.

Michael Engelhard is the author of the essay collection, American Wild: Explorations from the Grand Canyon to the Arctic Ocean, and of Ice Bear: The Cultural History of an Arctic Icon, the only book that deals exclusively with 8,000 years of human-polar bear interaction. Trained as an anthropologist, Engelhard lives in Fairbanks, Alaska and works as a wilderness guide in the Arctic.